The concept of the Persian Garden
‘Gardens’ were originally just plots of land enclosed by walls and where plants were grown, but this practice later evolved into a codified form of art.
There are two factors which are necessary to understand the Persian Garden: its internal organization and its external setting. A variety of gardens have been created,
among which the nominated ones, in particular, demonstrate a tangible expression of the original concept.
The basic elements of Persian Garden design are the use of right angles, the division of the garden plot into four right-angled sectors (with two axes perpendicular to each other), the role of geometry and symmetry, and well-defined delimitation using walls.
The division of a site into four sectors (Chahar Bagh or Four Gardens), opening out in the four cardinal directions through the two main axes (Chahar Taqi), is symbolic of the creation of Eden as well as the four Zoroastrian elements of sky, earth, water, and plants. These should always be considered when creating a garden.
The design of the Persian Garden is dominated by geometry, which serves a mythical function. It reflects the cosmic order of the world in the Garden like Paradise on
Bagh-e Abas Abad
Bagh-e Abas Abad (420.20ha) is an example of how the Persian Garden model adapted to a rainy and vegetated environment in the Safavid epoch.
The garden complex is located amid a forest, in northern Iran, and consists of a garden, a dam, a dual brick tower, a water mill, a palace, stone-paved paths, and
The garden receives water from a spring which supplies a basin, created by means of a dam. The water was channeled from the basin through an open canal or
ceramic pipes to a basin which was the starting point of the irrigation system. The Chahar Bagh compound is the source of water for the entire garden, due to its relatively elevated position. The water runs through a system of pipes, canals, and basins, and the flow is maximized by exploiting the slope, gravity and water pressure. Most of the structures in this garden are of archaeological interest today: the waterworks, pool and bathhouse;
Chahar Taqi (in the dam basin) – both with functional use in water spill control (the central pier with meshed holes worked as an emergency valve) and recreational
ones; two brick towers, conceived to work as safety valves, siphon traps, and pressure relief devices.
The plan and features of this garden are unlike those of any other Persian Garden especially considering the culmination of waterworks engineering, represented by
the interconnected system of the dam, the network of underground channels and pipes, the Chahar Taqi and the towers with their safety function.