Villa Magazine seeks the Iranian Government to copy "passive primary school" by AA Design in Jiroft-Iran
In 2016 we conducted a comprehensive analysis of the civic and economic structure of the Iranian village of Dehnu.
Dehnu school is in one of the poorest regions aims to provide further education to the inhabitants of the rural area. Dehnu, with a population of 18590, has no primary education facilities. Diverse design aspects of the project consider the challenging weather conditions where summer temperatures peak at 40’c.
The project transforms Dehnu school in a climatically comfortable and energetically sustainable new building, by means of three main actions suit to inhabitants living culture meeting a crucial need for education in the region with one of the highest illiteracy rates in IRAN;
- natural cooling system
- natural daylight
- natural ventilation
The project area is a typically vast plain, surrounded with family houses, paddy fields, highway, existing buildings, two rivers, and Jebal Barez mountain chain. The region elevation is about 650-meters above the sea level. The weather is very warm in summer and temperatures are moderate in winter. It is one of the hottest places in Iran with considerable temperature changes in the day and night and also great agricultural & Beekeeping potentials.
Our design is dedicated by the climate and by the desire that the building be constructed by human power only. Most of the construction materials used are source available: granite stones for the base, clay, palm trunks, palm leafs weaved, Griff-Aitch(Nannorrhops), adobe bricks. Cement & Glass will be donated from local manufacturers.
The structure is made primarily of adobe brick, a traditional building material in the region. Adobe bricks, with a small admixture of cement for increased durability.
A number of improvements upon local building traditions were introduced, such as a concrete foundation and a concrete ring beam to strengthen the structure and a plastic moisture barrier between the foundation and the walls. Concrete beams run across the load-bearing brick walls under a ceiling of more earth bricks.
Dehnu School is made of a mixture of adobe brick, shading Griff-aitrch and water conductor, acting as a buffer against temperature and climate changes. These buffer zones are designed to provide natural cooling, lighting, and ventilation through the 6 adoptable unit classes.
Residence unskilled laborers can be trained in the building techniques. Creative palm structure designed for double skin roof and Griff-Aitch ( Nannorrhops-Mazzari palm )shading patterns to control the heat.
The project motivates the community by enhancing the skills of laborers where traditional techniques are combined with new know-how.
Natural ventilation cooling effect
The natural ventilation cooling effect is enhanced by routing air through ground tubes (tunnels), planting orange trees, and the use of double skin roof and facades to achieves a 10 ’c thermal reduction. The enhanced indoor comfort and condition are far more conducive to education.
Heat radiates from the ceiling directly into the poorly ventilated classrooms, resulting in interior temperatures of up to 40 ‘c.
Double skin roof introduces leaf slats to allow air to circulate freely and handmade shelters that protect from rain and also shades the building from the sun. The result is a pleasant climate inside the classrooms even in the extreme summer heat.
Hanieh Farajzadeh l Villanews